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> Wak Hai Cheng Bio 粤海清庙 Wak Hai Cheng Bio 粤海清庙 Wak Hai Cheng Bio 粤海清庙 Wak Hai Cheng Bio 粤海清庙

Wak Hai Cheng Bio
粤海清庙

  Introduction

Origin

According to the book "Chao Qiao Su Yuan Ji", Wak Hai Cheng Bio (Yueh Hai Ching Temple) was a Mazu shrine located at Chulia Street. The shrine was built before 1738 by Lin Pan, a native of Theng Hai (Chenghai) in Swatow (Shantou). In 1820 Wak Hai Cheng Bio was rebuilt by Heng Hong Soon (Wang Feng Shun), a native of Ampou (Anbu), Teo Ann (Chao'an), who was also the founder of Ban Si Soon Kongsi (Wan Shi Shun Gongsi). The strongest evidence to support this claim was a censer found in Wak Hai Cheng Bio that was dated 1819.

Mazu and Xuan Tian Shang Di

The land lease for Wak Hai Cheng Bio was obtained in 1826, the year that Wak Hai Cheng Bio was built into a temple with two halls, one dedicated to Mazu and the other to Xuan Tian Shang Di, making it the oldest Mazu temple and the oldest Xuan Tian Shang Di temple in Singapore. The Teochew refer to their god as Lau Ya, and Wak Hai Cheng Bio as "Tua Lau Ya Keng" (大老爷宫). For the Cantonese, they took note of the twin halls in this temple and call it Ma Miu (孖庙) or twin temple.

Ngee Ann Kongsi

Wak Hai Cheng Bio was managed by Ban Si Soon Kongsi (Wan Shi Shun Gongsi) until 1845, when it was taken over by Ngee Ann Kongsi, a Teochew organization founded by Seah Eu Chin. The words Ngee Ann refer to an old city in the Teochew region of Guangdong province.

Emperor's Scroll

In 1899 a scroll with the words 'Shu Hai Xiang Yun' (auspicious new sea/land) was bestowed upon the temple by emperor Guangxu, which signifies the importance of Wak Hai Cheng Bio to the Qing court. The scroll was made into a wooden plaque and is currently on display in the Mazu Hall. The only other temple in Singapore that had received a Emperor's scroll is Thian Hock Keng.

Kwangtung Hui Kuan

Other plaques in the temple were presented by the Hakka, Cantonese and Hainanese clan associations, demonstrating the good relationship between them. In fact, Singapore Kwangtung Hui Kuan, representing those originated from Guangdong province, was initially housed in Wak Hai Cheng Bio. Singapore Kwangtung Hui Kuan is a clan association founded in 1937 that represents the Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka and Hainanese from Guangdong province of China. Hainanese was included because Hainan island used to be part of Guangdong province, until it became a separate province in 1988. Visitors can also find ancient artefacts such as the Mazu bell dated 1837, the Xuan Tian Shang Di bell dated 1836 or 1838, and a couplet dated 1826.

Yuan Xiao Jie

Besides the Teochew, many Cantonese pray at this temple too, especially on the 14th and 15th of the first lunar month, when the temple is overwhelmed by a constant stream of devotees. For many it will be their annual pilgrimage here to exchange flags, sugar lions and lanterns. Read more about Yuan Xiao Jie.

Architecture

The most distinctive feature of this temple is the rooftop's figurines that depict scenes of Teochew opera, creating an architecture that is quitessentially Teochew and comparable to the best in Chaozhou. They were created using a technique known as Qian Ci ornamentation, similar to the Hokkien's Jian Nian. As explained on Ngee Ann Kongsi website, "these figures were created using the porcelain-inlay method, or qianci, which is a process distinct to the Chaoshan province of Chaozhou.  Porcelain pieces in a collage of colours were cut to size and pasted onto the plastered figurines, providing a glazed sheen which gives a smooth and vibrant aesthetic. It was gazetted as a national moument of Singapore on 28 June 1996 and won the Unesco Heritage Award in 2015 for its "meticulous conservation work to retain the building's original patina and ceramic ornamentations".

See more photo for Restoring Wak Hai Cheng Bio 2015.


根据《潮僑溯源集》书中所述,粤海清庙最初是一间供奉妈祖的神坛,1738年之前由澄海樟林人林泮所建,原址在“山顶仔”。后来由创办《万世顺公司》的庵埠东溪人王丰顺重建。从粤海清庙内找到的己卯年(公元1819)“天恩公”炉证明粤海清庙在1819年已经存在。

妈祖,玄天上帝

按照官方说法,粤海清庙在1826年正式重建为一间双殿庙宇,主奉妈祖与玄天上帝,成为新加坡最古老的妈祖庙与及玄天上帝庙。潮州人称神为“老爷”,大神敬称为“大老爷”,所以将粤海清庙俗称为“大老爷宫”。广籍人氏较喜欢用“孖庙”来称呼粤海清庙,是双殿庙的意识。
粤海清庙初期是由万世顺公司管理,到了1845年才由余有进等人组织的义安公司接管。义安公司是以潮州的前身义安郡命名,接管粤海清庙后继续扩建及重修,早期还将办公室设在庙内。

光绪御书

1899年光绪皇帝御书“曙海祥云”金漆匾额,赐予粤海清庙,感谢捐助中国南方水灾灾民,也显示粤海清庙受大清朝庭的重视。

广东会馆

除此之外,庙内也挂满早年由客家,广东及琼州会馆所敬赠的匾额,显示当年客,广,琼,潮四帮的关系良好。四帮还在1937年联手创立新加坡广东会馆,并将办公室设立在粤海清庙。在1988年之前琼州(海南)属于广东省,因此海南人也加入广东会馆。庙中的古物还包括了道光十七年的天后圣母铜钟和道光十六(或十八)年的玄天上帝铜钟,以及道光丙戌年(公元1826)的对联。

元宵节

除了潮州人,很多广东人也常到粤海清庙上香,特别在农历正月十四与十五更是人潮汹涌。许多香客每年都来还接灯笼,糖狮和令旗。关于元宵节的详情

建筑风格

粤海清庙是间传统的潮州式建筑,屋顶上有非常细致的潮州雕塑及嵌瓷,燕尾上扬卷曲,墙壁和梁上也有精美的石雕与木雕,1996年6月被列为国家古迹,2015年得联合国亚太文化资产保存优异奖。嵌瓷是利用瓷片嵌贴在泥塑形象上,效果色彩亮丽而耐久,是潮汕地区特有的建筑装饰艺术,跟福建剪粘相似。

更多关于重修粤海清庙的照片。
  Deities 神明
Main Deity 主神/佛
Xuan Tian Shangdi 玄天上帝Other temples with this as main deity
Heavenly Empress (Mazu) 天后圣母 (妈祖)Other temples with this as main deity


Other Deities 众神/佛
Eight Immortals 八仙
City God (Cheng Huang Ye) 城隍爷
Hua Gong 花公
Hua Po 花婆
Tua Pek Kong (Da Bo Gong) 大伯公
Current Year Tai Sui 当年太岁
Guanyin 观音
Gan Tian Da Di 感天大帝
Madam Zhu Sheng 注生娘娘
Monkey King 齐天大圣
Sa Ya Pek 三爷伯
Tiger God 虎爷
Hua Tuo (God of Medicine) 华佗
Tua Li Ya Pek 大二爷伯
Justice Bao 包青天
Long Wei Sheng Wang 龙尾圣王
Ji Gong 济公
Zhang Gong Sheng Jun 张公圣君 (法主公)
Guan Di 关帝
Moon Goddess 月宫娘娘
God of Wealth 财神爷
General Dark Face (Hei Mian Jiang Jun) 黑面将军
General Red Face (Hong Mian Jiang Jun) 红面将军
4 Heavenly Kings - Dhrita-rastra, Vidradhaka, Virapaksa, Vaisravana 四大天王- 持国天王、增长天王、广目天王、多闻天王
Liu Jin Sheng Hou (Qian Li Yan, Shun Feng Er) 柳金圣侯 (千里眼, 顺风耳)
God of Marriage (old man under the moon) 月下老人
  Activities 活动View Activity Photos
庚子(鼠)年正月十五日 : 上元节(元宵节)
Lunar: 15th of 1st mth - Yuan Xiao Jie

庚子(鼠)年三月初三日 : 玄天上帝圣诞
Lunar: 3rd of 3rd mth - Birthday of Xuan Tian Shang Di

庚子(鼠)年三月廿三日 : 妈祖圣诞
Lunar: 23rd of 3rd mth - Birthday of Mazu

庚子(鼠)年六月十五日 : 中元节(盂兰胜会)
Lunar: 15th of 7th mth - Hungry Ghost Festival

庚子(鼠)年八月初九日 : 重阳节
Lunar: 9th of 9th mth - Double Nine Festival

庚子(鼠)年九月廿四日 : 酬谢神恩
Lunar: 24th of 10th mth - Thanksgiving

  Contact Information 联络资讯
Address: 30B Phillips Street, Singapore
Tel: 6423 4616

Operating Hours:
Daily: 8am - 5pm
1st and 15th of lunar month: 7am – 5pm

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